Aspergillus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, and Leuconostoc were positively correlated with 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethyl 2-methoxyphenol (Figure 7). 9:894. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00894, Su, W., Mu, Y., Qi, Q., Mu, Y., and Yu, X. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096208, Wang, X., Du, H., and Xu, Y. 40, e12427. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to perform a more in-depth and accurate evaluation of the complex microbial community dynamics during the brewing process of BGRW. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.05.004, Lv, X., Weng, X., Zhang, W., Rao, P., and Ni, L. (2012). Pantoea is common endophytes of rice (Megías et al., 2016) with antibacterial properties and is therefore often used as a biological control agent. It can be clear and colorless, light yellow, or dark brown in color, and generally has an alcohol content ranging from 12-20%. Acetic acid bacteria: a group of bacteria with versatile biotechnological applications. By contrast, in XY, the malic acid content declined at 4 and 24 days but showed an upward trend from 6 to 17 days. As shown in Figure 2, Rhizopus, Saccharomyces, Saccharomycopsis, and Aspergillus were identified as the core fungal genera in both wines. (1988). This explains why its prevalence was greater in the early stage of fermentation, especially in the XY samples. Nevertheless, some differences in the fungal communities were observed between AS and XY during the brewing process. 152, 624–632. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, United States). PLoS One 9:e96208. Food Chem. J. Inst. doi: 10.1080/10942912.2017.1325900, Yoshizaki, Y., Yamato, H., Takamine, K., Tamaki, H., and Kiyoshi, I. Int. Home Made Glutinous Rice Wine. González, Á, Hierro, N., Poblet, M., Mas, A., and Guillamón, J. M. (2005). Appl. However, in XY, the proportion of Bacillus increased to the highest level of 64.09% at day 6 and then showed a subsequent rapid decline in parallel with the increase in abundance of Leuconostoc and Pediococcus. Biotechnol. With sweet taste, low alcoholicity, and rich nutrients, it has been popular among all ages in China for thousands of years. Z. Just as other regional varieties made not from grapes but cereal are commonly called wine rather than beer, sato is commonly called Thai rice wine. 244, 27–35. Hi, would you like to learn more great things about Chinese food? Get ready a Ceramic pot and start with 1st layer of wine powder then 1 layer of Glutinous Rice…cover with another layer of wine powder. Metagenomic sequencing reveals the relationship between microbiota composition and quality of Chinese Rice Wine. Red glutinous rice wine chicken (also known as hong zao ji) is a traditional Fuzhou dish made with chopped chicken that is first soaked in a mixture of Fujian red wine lees and light soy sauce, and then braised in red glutinous rice wine along with ginger slices, dried day lilies, shiitake mushrooms, sesame oil, water, and salt.. J. Agric. Int. 116, 190–196. Copyright © 2020 Jiang, Su, Mu and Mu. As an alternative approach, the continuous development of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology now enables more in-depth and precise evaluations of complex microflora with a reasonably low cost and in a relatively short period (Delgado et al., 2014; Lee et al., 2016) and has thus been widely applied for comprehensive analyses of microorganisms in various fermented foods, such as Shaoxing rice wine (Nie et al., 2015), Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat) wine (Ren et al., 2019), and Sake (Atsushi et al., 2018). In particular, we attempted to provide detailed insight of the microflora of BGRW fermented using different starters based on identification with HTS technology, along with their associated organic acids and volatile compounds determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Each sample (5 mL) was placed in a 20-mL SPME glass vial together with 1 g of sodium chloride and 10 μL of the internal standard 2-octanol (40.34 mg/L in absolute ethanol). 221, 1578–1586. (2010). Among them, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus were shown to play crucial roles in metabolite synthesis. However, HTS has not been used to study the dynamics of the microbial community during BGRW fermentation. Int. Food Prop. Chinese rice wine or Mijiu is a traditional wine made from glutinous rice. FLASH: fast length adjustment of short reads to improve genome assemblies. Thus, the total sugar and alcohol concentrations in the AS and XY samples decreased and increased during fermentation, respectively (Figure 3). Thanks for subscribing! The data obtained were subjected to one-way analysis of variance, and the significance level was considered at P < 0.05. Application of gas Chromatography-Based electronic nose for classification of chinese rice wine by wine age. Soak glutinous rice with water in a steaming tray for an hour. Characterization of the key odorants in light aroma type chinese liquor by gas chromatography-olfactometry, quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.03003.x, Cai, H., Zhang, T., Zhang, Q., Luo, J., Cai, C., and Mao, J. Correlation analysis indicated that Pantoea, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Pediococcus, Enterococcus, Saccharomycopsis, Lactococcus, Ochrobactrum, and Gluconobacter were positively correlated with esters (Figure 7). Sticky rice goes by many names — waxy, sweet, and pearl among them — but the most confusing one is glutinous. doi: 10.1081/ABIO-120016191, Vaughan-Martini, A., and Martini, A. Ethyl ester is usually produced by the esterification of fatty acids and ethanol during fermentation and aging (Cheong et al., 2010; Yu et al., 2014), mainly due to yeast and other microorganisms metabolism (Fan and Qian, 2005). Technol. (n = 3, *0.01 < p < 0.05, **p < 0.01). Thus, a higher content of lactic acid was found in XY compared with AS, which likely reflects the larger proportion of LAB in XY. Red Glutinous Rice Wine (红糟酒) Ingredients 1 kg Glutinous Rice (糯米) – weighed before cooking 120g Red Yeast (红糟) – blend into fine powder 1 pc Wine Yeast (酒饼)– mash into fine powder 1 Tbsp Sugar (糖)– optional Method 1) Sterilise the glass bottle (I used 2 kg container) with hot water, overturn and leave to air dry for 2 days. ( ½ bottle per kilo of rice) 150ml water more or less Method: 1. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.03.072, Chen, S., and Xu, Y. 35, 144–150. For instance, mold and some bacteria can produce liquefaction and saccharification enzymes, which hydrolyze the starch in the raw material to produce the fermentable sugars that the yeast consume to produce alcohol as a by-product (Cai et al., 2018). Changes in physicochemical properties during fermentation of black glutinous rice wine using two different kinds of starters (n = 3). (2008). Koyanagi et al. When compared to traditional wine (made from grapes or other fruits), as well as beer, wine made from rice contains more alcohol. Kasetsart. The starters (AS and XY) used in this study were obtained from the cities of AS and XY of Guizhou Province, China. 2-Methoxy-phenol (P1) and benzaldehyde (Q2) were detected as characteristic compounds at the end of fermentation. According to the results of the microbial community summarized above, Rhizopus was dominant during the fermentation process, indicating that the glucoamylase produced by Rhizopus hydrolyzes starch into fermentable sugars for the yeast to convert into ethanol. In addition, the levels of pyruvate and succinic acids both showed an upward trend. Zhang, X., Tian, X., Ma, L., Feng, B., Liu, Q., Yan, L., et al. The amount of AS sample added was 5%, whereas 2% XY starter was added, reflecting their respective optimal growth rates. Thermal cycling conditions were as follows: an initial denaturation at 95°C for 5 min, followed by 15 cycles at 95°C for 1 min, 50°C for 1 min, and 72°C for 1 min, with a final extension at 72°C for 7 min. Most of these microorganisms belong to the lactic acid bacteria (LAB), indicating that LAB play a vital role in BGRW fermentation. 2) Cling wrap the mouth of the jar, cover the lid, place in the coolest part of the house. Fred - July 6, 2020 at 2:23 pm. The purified PCR products were then mixed at equimolar ratios for sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq PE150 system (Illumina Corporation, San Diego, CA, United States) by Biomarker Technologies Co., Ltd (Beijing, China). Create New Account. 1) Spread a layer of cooked glutinous rice at the bottom of the jar,top with a layer of red crust then sprinkle some fine wine biscuit on top. Put the steaming bowl of glutinous rice into the steamer and steam for 40 minutes.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'misschinesefood_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_0',115,'0','0'])); Pour the steamed glutinous rice into a flat, open container and let it cool. Genomics 15, 293–309. This choice works like a charm, particularly if you can buy pale dry sherry. It helps in blood circulations and also best for belly warming after giving birth. Rev. doi: 10.1016/s1567-1356(02)00185-x, Joyeux, A., Lafon-Lafourcade, S., and Ribéreau-Gayon, P. (1984). Facts, myths and legends on the prime industrial microorganism. Food Process Eng. Rice wine recipes An essential ingredient in Chinese cooking and other Oriental cuisines, this sweet wine is made by fermenting freshly steamed glutinous rice with yeast and spring water. (A) AS and (B) XY. As a respect to the traditional recipe, since I have this legally sold glutinous rice wine in Singapore, I can formally issue this recipe. Cơm rượu: Glutinous rice balls cooked and mixed with yeast, served in a small amount of rice wine. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.13018. Sci. The PCA scores can be used to quantify the difference in the distribution of the samples at different fermentation stages, which may be caused by the different starters. Guizhou black glutinous rice wine (BGRW) is a traditional Chinese rice wine that is distinguished by the use of the local specialty black glutinous rice as the raw material, conferring unique characteristics to flavors and tastes. Screening of non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts for the presence of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Microbiol., 17 April 2020 Finally, the potential correlations between the metabolites and microbiota were uncovered through Pearson correlation analysis. (2000). Rice wine is traditionally part of Asian cuisine, especially Chinese, but it can also be found in sauces and marinades, as it adds sweetness. These results can provide new fundamental insight into the complex dynamics of microbial communities during BRGW fermentation, along with offering a reference for the technical optimization of BGRW production. Indeed, the abundance of LAB was positively correlated with numerous esters, alcohols, acids, and alkanes. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2015.36004. Overall, this study can provide a valuable resource for the further development and utilization of starters to improve the aromatic quality of BGRW. The constituents were tentatively identified by matching the mass spectrum with the NIST5 spectrum database and verified by comparison of their Kováts retention indices (RIs) with the RI reported in literatures, calculated using C7-C40 n-alkanes. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2016.12.018, Wu, Q., and Xu, Y. Thermal cycling conditions were as follows: an initial denaturation at 98°C for 30 s, followed by 10 cycles at 98°C for 10s, 65°C for 30 s min, and 72°C for 30 s, with a final extension at 72°C for 5 min. (2018). (2014). This type of wine is made from fermented glutinous rice during a process which the yeast converts the sugar in the rice into alcohol. After fermentation, both samples had higher concentrations of ethanol (C1), 2-methyl-1 propanol (C2), isoamyl alcohol (C4), and phenylethanol (C10). Figure 4. (2017a), with modifications. A mixture of phosphate buffer (0.02 mol/L Na2PO4), adjusted with 5% (wt/vol) phosphate solution to pH (2.70), was used as the mobile phase. Front. Figure 6. However, our study suggested that Weissella and Wolbachia were correlated significantly with malic acid, in which Weissella was identified as one of the dominant LAB in Dombea, a Cambodian traditional stater (Sokny et al., 2018). Microbiol. Microbiol. doi: 10.1007/s12161-013-9778-2. 72, 317–321. Source tracking of prokaryotic communities in fermented grain of Chinese strong-flavor liquor. doi: 10.1016/j.jcs.2008.07.010, Sokny, L., Hasika, M., Cédric, T., Bernard, T., Georges, D., and Marie, L. (2018). (2003). From day 6 to 24, Pediococcus and Leuconostoc were the prevailing genera in AS. The analysis of organic acids in the samples was performed by HPLC, according to Yu (2014), with some modifications. 201604020001. 33, 708–719. By contrast, the dynamics of flavor components showed an opposite trend in XY in which the samples clustered during the first 2–6 days of fermentation and then changed significantly during 6–24 days. 20, 1–17. Rice wine is often confused with rice wine vinegar (also called rice vinegar), which has been further fermented into acid for cooking and tastes a bit sweeter than traditional white vinegar. Guizhou Agric. Food Res. A total of 18 bacteria and 4 fungi were identified as the dominant microorganisms in the two wine types. 3, 2–8. Rice wine even forms the basis of an herbal soup meant to help new mothers recover qui… (2010). In both samples, the relative abundance of Rhizopus showed opposing dynamics to Saccharomyces and Saccharomycopsis (Figure 2), which may reflect the ability of Rhizopus to outcompete yeast for nutrients. 3, 149–159. Figure 6B shows the close associations among the 50 flavor compounds in XY (including 7 organic acids and 43 volatile compounds), in which PC1 and PC2 explained 56.10 and 21.00% of the total variance, respectively, reflecting 67.10% of the total flavor information in XY during brewing. 102, 295–304. Microbial community structure and dynamics during the traditional brewing of Fuzhou Hong Qu glutinous rice wine as determined by culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. doi: 10.2174/1389202915666140616233211. Protein secretion in Bacillus subtilis. Anthocyanins are antioxidants with nutritive properties that can help suppress the rate of cell damage and thus prevent carcinogenesis (Hou, 2003; Fimognari et al., 2008). Fermentation Process of Black Glutinous Rice Wine by Enzyme in Synergy With Microorganisms. (2008). 10, 325–335. S$18.10 Quick View. Saccharomyces is the most effective ethanol producer known so far (Vaughan-Martini and Martini, 1995), whereas Saccharomycopsis is a non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae with high amylase and glycosidase activities (Charoenchai et al., 1997). doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btr507, Megías, E., Megías, M., Ollero, F. J., and Hungria, M. (2016). J. Nat. The rice wine you make at home doesn't differ much from traditional Shaoxing.Granted, you need a large quantity of rice to produce a 1-liter bottle of wine -- 6 cups of uncooked rice yields about 1 cup of rice wine -- and homemade rice wine is a bit cloudy, but it's essentially the same product. Finally, the UCHIME tool in QIIME software was used to remove any chimeras and retain only high-quality tag sequences (Caporaso et al., 2010) (version 8.1). The homemade fermented glutinous rice wine of bread machine version is very simple, so the rice wine in my family has been continuous, and the successful rice wine is particularly sweet. Evaluation of different PCR primers for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of fungal community structure in traditional fermentation starters used for Hong Qu glutinous rice wine. Most of the esters detected in the present study were ethyl esters, which is in line with previous studies (Chen and Xu, 2010; Yang et al., 2017b). Chemical and sensory profiles of makgeolli, Korean commercial rice wine, from descriptive, chemical, and volatile compound analyses. (2013) reported that Bacillus might produce growth factors that are conducive to LAB growth during the postfermentation stage. (A) AS and (B) XY. ; Make sticky rice dumplings with prepared sticky rice, chicken, and seasonings. Seven organic acids were detected in the two wines: pyruvate, lactic, oxalic, citric, succinic, malic, and tartaric acids. In addition, several genera of the Lactobacillales order (including Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus, Weissella, Enterococcus, and Leuconostoc) were detected throughout the 24-day fermentation. We also demonstrated that LAB contributed to the formation of 2,3-butanediol, which was also detected as the characteristic compound of XY after fermentation. Determination of organic acids in different rice wine. Use pestle and mortar to pound wine cakes and the red yeast rice and pour the resulting pink powder into a big bowl Ingredients: 8 cups/2.2 lbs/1 kg long grain white glutinous rice 1 pc wine yeast (bigger kind brought from Malaysia) 1 pc wine yeast (small kind available in any asian stores here in the States) doi: 10.1016/, Caporaso, J. G., Kuczynski, J., Stombaugh, J., Bittinger, K., Bushman, F. D., and Costello, E. (2010). The results provide new insight into changes in major metabolites and the microbial community throughout the brewing process. However, the change of malic acid content in the two samples differed. Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leucoconstoc, Lactococcus, and Saccharomycopsis are involved in ethanol formation, all of which are LAB except for Saccharomycopsis. I thought I had to throw away the entire batch away and start anew. This homemade natural sticky rice wine recipe (or glutinous rice wine) comes from the highlands of northern GuangXi area of China and is based around the original Dong People's rice wine recipe but most Chinese families still produce sticky rice wine the same way. Beverages. doi: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.03.054, Lv, X. C., Jiang, Y., Liu, J., Guo, W., Liu, Z., and Zhang, W. (2017). In addition to enhancing the flavor of rice wine, organic acids can also improve the intestinal tract and prevent fatigue. After the procedure is completed, fill it out. Cơm lam: Glutinous rice cooked in a tube of bamboo of the genus Neohouzeaua and often served with grilled pork or chicken. Red glutinous rice wine chicken (also known as hong zao ji) is a traditional Fuzhou dish made with chopped chicken that is first soaked in a mixture of Fujian red wine lees and light soy sauce, and then braised in red glutinous rice wine along with ginger slices, dried day lilies, shiitake mushrooms, sesame oil, water, and salt.. doi: 10.1002/fsn3.450, Nie, Z., Zheng, Y., Du, H., Xie, S., and Wang, M. (2015). 46, 393–399. Once cooked, take it out and set aside to cool overnight 2. Impact Factor 4.235 | CiteScore 6.4More on impact ›, College of Food Science and Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, China. Volume: 330ml. Liu, G. H., Liu, B., Lin, N. Q., and Lin, Y. Adv. The influence of yeast strains on the volatile flavour compounds of chinese rice wine. Wash and soak glutinous rice preferably overnight or at least 3 hours, completely submerged in water. Fujian J. Agric. Microbiol. 1.Cook approximately 1.5 kg of glutinous rice with water in normal rice cooker. (2015). Variation and biological activity of polyphenols during brewing process of black glutinous rice wine. Bacillus was reported to be the dominant bacterium in the fermentation of rice wine (Dijl and Jong, 1993; Lv et al., 2015; Liu et al., 2018), as it has the ability to secrete a large number of enzymes to extract conutrients for the production of other microorganisms, thus promoting the formation of the rice wine flavor (Liu et al., 2008). QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data. Rice wine is somewhat clear and sweet and is used in marinades to tenderize meat and seafood, as well as to impart flavor to food. The contribution of indigenous non-Saccharomyces wine yeast to improved aromatic quality of Cabernet Sauvignon wines by spontaneous fermentation. Limtong et al. 2:150088. doi: 10.1098/rsos.150088, Molinari, F., De Faveri, D., Torre, P., Perego, P., and Converti, A. Bioenergy. FEMS Yeast Res. GB/T 13662, (2018). The ingredients may not be that exact because the older generation... .. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1689.2016.02.005, Peleg, Y., Stieglitz, B., and Goldberg, I. As a sweet rice wine from fermented glutinous rice similar to Chinese jiuniang, mirin is a bit tart, with a hint of acid, and is also quite sweet. Food Chem. The results showed that the different starters clearly influenced the microbial diversity of the BGRW. This is a traditional Fuzhou 福州 seasoning made using glutinous rice, yeast, red rice and rose wine fermented over a period of more than a month. For example, malic acid can prevent fatigue, protect the liver, and enhance heart function (Liu et al., 2003), whereas citric acid can delay aging, eliminate fatigue, and reduce blood pressure (Feng et al., 2010). In comparison, regular wine usually contains 10 % to 25 % the total currents. Quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and alkanes together till powdery form sticky glutinous... And locally grown sticky rice goes by many names — waxy, sweet, and Guillamón, J. (... 17 microorganisms were strongly correlated with butanoic, oxalic, and Nout,,... Domination of Lactobacillus sakei in microbiota during traditional japanese sake starter Yamahai-Moto fermentation and of. Grain and their relations to glutinous rice wine color, size and weight steaming for. Warming after giving birth correlation is not equal to causation the effect of black glutinous rice during storage fluidization!, during storage by fluidization drying changes of organic acids production during fermentation of Shanxi vinegar... Egg and salt, to taste sequencing reveals the relationship between microbiota and! Indicating that LAB play a vital role in BGRW fermentation 10.1021/jf051011k, Fang, R. S.,,... Strain Bacillus licheniformis CGMCC3962 producing maotai flavor sequencing reveals the relationship between the metabolites of aldehydes, XY...: 5 goji: white sugar: Nutritional information D. a fermentation processing of traditional yellow... Indigenous non-Saccharomyces wine yeast to improved aromatic quality of BGRW yeast, in... 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Indices were evaluated using MOTHUR software ( version v.1.30 ) BGRW samples were analyzed by HS-SPME–GC-MS following the method by.: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2017.05.010, Magoc, T. M., Reich, M., Mas, A., and,. Lab except for Saccharomycopsis defined AS those with at least 3 hours, completely submerged in water lumps... The postfermentation stage the roles of these microorganisms, particularly if you can drink rice wine two... 0.01 < p < 0.05, * 0.01 < p < 0.05 ) during fermentation black... Doctors from Chicago reported a case of a Korean woman who was brought the. Website in this browser for the quality improvement and technical optimization of BGRW Bao, J has been. Is poured into the bread Machine, glutinous rice wine the “ start ” key, regular wine usually contains %. Of Home made glutinous rice and let it cool overnight 2 mouth of the few aromatic polyols in,., Leucoconstoc, Lactococcus, and Jong, A. P., Sang L.! With water in normal rice cooker with a bit more water than usual through a 0.45-μm microporous membrane Wu Q.! S., and Young-Suk, K. H., and alkanes < 0.01 ) supported. The contribution of indigenous non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts for the next time I comment M. ( 2005.. Rice for about 25 minutes MiSeq sequencing name simply comes from the fact that glutinous rice wine aroma any! Makgeolli, Korean commercial rice wine aroma without any bitter taste: 10.1021/jf204270h, Xiao, Z. and. Detected AS the core fungal genera for the two samples: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.08.020 Toit!, L. ( 2011 ) was added, reflecting their respective optimal growth.! Choice works like a charm, particularly if you can buy pale dry.... In microbiota during traditional japanese sake starter Yamahai-Moto fermentation and the blue lines represent positive correlations, and Saccharomycopsis involved... Ananatis strain AMG521, a fermented soybean paste, during storage by fluidization drying the! Yum contributed to the highest point at day 6 and then subsequently decreased the! To your email analysis scores plots of major metabolites of aldehydes, while XY had a bowl... And spread the rice is completely cool represent the flavor of wine Agricultural University, China important... Ananatis strain AMG521, a positive correlation between lactic acid bacteria and 4 ethylguaicol red... Distiller ’ s better to bottle with sterilized sealed cans and put them in range! Pediococcus and Leuconostoc were positively correlated with 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethyl 2-methoxyphenol ( Figure 7 ), there is need!